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A-Z 52+ Java Core API Packages You Must Know

Posted by Narendra Dhami on September 17, 2009


This tutorial provides more than 52 Core API Packages defined by Java. These all the 52 Core API Packages are listed in alphabetical order.Beside Core API Packages, there are also some other Java Packages described in this tutorial.

A

1. java.applet

java.applet package provides the classes necessary to create an applet and the classes an applet uses to communicate with its applet context. The applet framework involves two entities: the applet and the applet context. An applet is an embeddable window with a few extra methods that the applet context can use to initialize, start, and stop the applet. The applet context is an application that is responsible for loading and running applets. For example, the applet context could be a Web browser or an applet development environment.

2. java.awt

java.awt package is the main package of the AWT, or Abstract Windowing Toolkit. It contains classes for graphics, including the Java 2D graphics capabilities introduced in the Java 2 platform, and also defines the basic graphical user interface (GUI) framework for Java. java.awt also includes a number of heavyweight GUI objects, many of which have been superseded by the javax.swing package.

3. java.awt.color

java.awt.color package supports color spaces and profiles. It contains an implementation of a color space based on the International Color Consortium (ICC) Profile Format Specification, Version 3.4, August 15, 1997. It also contains color profiles based on the ICC Profile Format Specification.

4. java.awt.datatransfer

java.awt.datatransfer package provides classes to support transfer of data to and from the system clipboard. Only string data is supported, and only cut, copy, and paste. Transferable interface is implemented by classes that represent data to be transferred. It includes methods to determine the possible data flavors of the object and to retrieve the data itself.

5. java.awt.dnd

java.awt.dnd package supports drag and drop operations.This package defines the classes and interfaces necessary to perform Drag and Drop operations in Java. It defines classes for the drag-source and the drop-target, as well as events for transferring the data being dragged. This package also provides a means for giving visual feedback to the user throughout the duration of the Drag and Drop operation.

6. java.awt.event

java.awt.event package provides interfaces and classes for dealing with different types of events fired by AWT components.

7. java.awt.font

java.awt.font package provides classes and interface relating to fonts.

8. java.awt.geom

java.awt.geom package provides classes for defining and performing operations on objects related to two-dimensional geometry.

9. java.awt.im

java.awt.im package provides classes that allow input of Japenese, Chinese and Korean characters to text editing components.

10. java.awt.im.spi

java.awt.im.spi package provides interfaces that enable the development of input methods that can be used with any Java runtime environment. Input methods are software components that let the user enter text in ways other than simple typing on a keyboard. They are commonly used to enter Japanese, Chinese, or Korean – languages using thousands of different characters – on keyboards with far fewer keys. However, this package also allows the development of input methods for other languages and the use of entirely different input mechanisms, such as handwriting recognition.

11. java.awt.image

java.awt.image package provides classes and interfaces for processing images.

12. java.awt.image.renderable

java.awt.image.renderable package provides classes and interfaces for producing rendering-independent images.

13. java.awt.print

java.awt.print package contains classes and interfaces that support printing. It has been introduced in Java 1.2 and supersedes the PrintJob class of the java.awt package. The most important class in this package is PrinterJob; it coordinates the printing process. The Printable and Pageable interfaces represent printable objects or documents that can be printed with a PrinterJob.

B

14. java.beans

java.beans package contains classes related to developing beans – components based on the JavaBeansTM architecture. A few of the classes are used by beans while they run in an application. For example, the event classes are used by beans that fire property and vetoable change events. However, most of the classes in this package are meant to be used by a bean editor. In particular, these classes help the bean editor
create a user interface that the user can use to customize the bean.

15. java.beans.beancontext

java.beans.beancontext package provides classes and interfaces relating to bean context. A bean context is a container for beans and defines the execution environment for the beans it contains. There can be several beans in a single bean context, and a bean context can be nested within another bean context. This package also contains events and listener interface for beans being added and removed from a bean context.

I

16. java.io

java.io package provides for system input and output through data streams, serialization and the file system. Unless otherwise noted, passing a null argument to a constructor or method in any class or interface in this package will cause a NullPointerException to be thrown.

L

17. java.lang

java.lang package provides classes that are fundamental to the design of the Java programming language. The most important classes are Object, which is the root of the class hierarchy, and Class, instances of which represent classes at run time.

18. java.lang.annotation

java.lang.annotation package provides library support for the Java programming language annotation facility.

19. java.lang.instrument

java.lang.instrument package provides services that allow Java programming language agents to instrument programs running on the JVM. The mechanism for instrumentation is modification of the byte-codes of methods.

20. java.lang.management

java.lang.management package provides the management interface for monitoring and management of the Java virtual machine as well as the operating system on which the Java virtual machine is running. It allows both local and remote monitoring and management of the running Java virtual machine.

21. java.lang.ref

java.lang.ref package provides reference-object classes, which support a limited degree of interaction with the garbage collector. A program may use a reference object to maintain a reference to some other object in such a way that the latter object may still be reclaimed by the collector. A program may also arrange to be notified some time after the collector has determined that the reachability of a given object has changed.

22. java.lang.reflect

java.lang.reflect package provides classes and interfaces for obtaining reflective information about classes and objects. Reflection allows programmatic access to information about the fields, methods and constructors of loaded classes, and the use reflected fields, methods, and constructors to operate on their underlying counterparts on objects, within security restrictions.

M

23. java.math

java.math package provides classes for performing arbitrary-precision integer arithmetic (BigInteger) and arbitrary-precision decimal arithmetic (BigDecimal). BigInteger is analogous to Java’s primitive integer types except that it provides arbitrary precision, hence operations on BigIntegers do not overflow or lose precision. In addition to standard arithmetic operations, BigInteger provides modular arithmetic, GCD calculation, primality testing, prime generation, bit manipulation, and a few other miscellaneous operations. BigDecimal provides arbitrary-precision signed decimal numbers suitable for currency calculations and the like. BigDecimal gives the user complete control over rounding behavior, allowing the user to choose from a comprehensive set of eight rounding modes.

N

24. java.net

java.net package provides the classes for implementing networking applications. Using the socket classes, you can communicate with any server on the Internet or implement your own Internet server. A number of classes are provided to make it convenient to use Universal Resource Locators (URLs) to retrieve data on the Internet.

25. java.nio

java.nio package defines buffers, which are containers for data, and provides an overview of the other NIO packages.

26. java.nio.channels

java.nio.channels package defines channels, which represent connections to entities that are capable of performing I/O operations, such as files and sockets; defines selectors, for multiplexed, non-blocking I/O operations.

27. java.nio.channels.spi

java.nio.channels.spi package provides Service-provider classes for the java.nio.channels package.

28. java.nio.charset

java.nio.charset package defines charsets, decoders, and encoders, for translating between bytes and Unicode characters.

29. java.nio.charset.spi

java.nio.charset.spi package provides Service-provider classes for the java.nio.charset package.

R

30. java.rmi

java.rmi package provides classes for remote method invocation.

31. java.rmi.activation

java.rmi.activation package provides classes for activation of persistent objects.

32. java.rmi.dgc

java.rmi.dgc package provides classes and interface for RMI distributed garbage-collection (DGC).

33. java.rmi.registry

java.rmi.registry package provides a class and two interfaces for the RMI registry. A registry is a remote object that maps names to remote objects. A server registers its remote objects with the registry so that they can be looked up. When an object wants to invoke a method on a remote object, it must first lookup the remote object using its name. The registry returns to the calling object a reference to the remote object, using which a remote method can be invoked.

34. java.rmi.server

java.rmi.server package provides classes and interfaces for supporting the server side of RMI. A group of classes are used by the stubs and skeletons generated by the rmic stub compiler. Another group of classes implements the RMI Transport protocol and HTTP tunneling.

S

35. java.security

java.security package contains the classes and interfaces that implement the Java security architecture. These classes can be divided into two broad categories. First, there are classes that implement access control and prevent untrusted code from performing sensitive operations. Second, there are authentication classes that implement message digests and digital signatures and can authenticate Java classes and other objects.

36. java.security.acl

java.security.acl package defines, but does not implement, an incomplete framework for working with access control lists (ACLs). This package was added in Java 1.1, but has been superseded in Java 1.2 by the access-control mechanisms of the java.security package.

37. java.security.cert

java.security.cert package provides classes and interfaces for parsing and managing certificates, certificate revocation lists (CRLs), and certification paths. It contains support for X.509 v3 certificates and X.509 v2 CRLs.

38. java.security.interfaces

java.security.intefaces package provides interfaces for generating RSA (Rivest, Shamir and Adleman AsymmetricCipher algorithm) keys as defined in the RSA Laboratory Technical Note PKCS#1, and DSA (Digital Signature Algorithm) keys as defined in NIST’s FIPS-186.

39. java.security.spec

java.security.spec package provides classes and interfaces for key pecifications and algorithm parameter specifications.A key specification is a transparent representation of the key material that constitutes a key. A key may be specified in an algorithm-specific way, or in an algorithm-independent encoding format (such as ASN.1). This package contains key specifications for DSA public and private keys, RSA public and private keys, PKCS #8 private keys in DER-encoded format, and X.509 public and private keys in DER-encoded format. An algorithm parameter specification is a transparent representation of the sets of parameters used with an algorithm. This package contains an algorithm parameter specification for parameters used with the DSA algorithm.

40. java.sql

java.sql package provides the API for accessing and processing data stored in a data source (usually a relational database) using the JavaTM programming language. This API includes a framework whereby different drivers can be installed dynamically to access different data sources. Although the JDBC API is mainly geared to passing SQL statements to a database, it provides for reading and writing data from any data source with a tabular format. The reader/writer facility, available through the javax.sql.RowSet group of interfaces, can be customized to use and update data from a spread sheet, flat file, or any other tabular data source.

T

41. java.text

java.text package consists of classes and interfaces that are useful for writing internationalized programs that handle local customs, such as date and time formatting and string alphabetization, correctly.

42. java.text.spi

java.text.spi package provides Service provider classes for the classes in the java.text package.

U

43. java.util

java.util package contains the collections framework, legacy collection classes, event model, date and time facilities, internationalization, and miscellaneous utility classes (a string tokenizer, a random-number generator, and a bit array).

44. java.util.concurrent

java.util.concurrent package contains Utility classes commonly useful in concurrent programming. This package includes a few small standardized extensible frameworks, as well as some classes that provide useful functionality and are otherwise tedious or difficult to implement.

45. java.util.concurrent.atomic

java.util.concurrent.atomic package provides a small toolkit of classes that support lock-free thread-safe programming on single variables.

46. java.util.concurrent.locks

java.util.concurrent.locks package provides Interfaces and classes which provide a framework for locking and waiting for conditions that is distinct from built-in synchronization and monitors. The framework permits much greater flexibility in the use of locks and conditions, at the expense of more awkward syntax.

47. java.util.jar

java.util.jar package provides classes for reading and writing the JAR (Java ARchive) file format, which is based on the standard ZIP file format with an optional manifest file. The manifest stores meta-information about the JAR file contents and is also used for signing JAR files.

48. java.util.logging

java.util.logging package provides the classes and interfaces of the JavaTM 2 platform’s core logging facilities. The central goal of the logging APIs is to support maintaining and servicing software at customer sites.

49. java.util.prefs

java.util.prefs package allows applications to store and retrieve user and system preference and configuration data. This data is stored persistently in an implementation-dependent backing store. There are two separate trees of preference nodes, one for user preferences and one for system preferences.

50. java.util.regex

java.util.regex package provides classes for matching character sequences against patterns specified by regular expressions.

51. java.util.spi

java.util.spi package provides Service provider classes for the classes in the java.util package.

52. java.util.zip

java.util.zip package provides classes for reading and writing the standard ZIP and GZIP file formats. Also includes classes for compressing and decompressing data using the DEFLATE compression algorithm, which is used by the ZIP and GZIP file formats. Additionally, there are utility classes for computing the CRC-32 and Adler-32 checksums of arbitrary input streams.

Some other Java Packages

1. javax.accessibility.*
2. javax.activation.*
3. javax.bluetooth.*
4. javax.crypto.*
5. javax.ejb.*
6. javax.enterprise.*
7. javax.faces.*
8. javax.ide.*
9. javax.imageio.*
10. javax.jms.*
11. javax.mail.*
12. javax.management.*
13. javax.microedition.*
14. javax.naming.*
15. javax.net.*
16. javax.print.*
17. javax.resource.*
18. javax.rmi.*
19. javax.security.*
20. javax.servlet.*
21. javax.sound.*
22. javax.sql.*
23. javax.swing.*
24. javax.transaction.*
25. javax.xml.*

sources: http://www.j2ee.me/ , http://www.java.sun.com/ , http://docstore.mik.ua/

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